### Topic 1: Measurement and uncertainties

### 1.1 - Measurements in physics

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Fundamental and derived SI units
- Scientific notation and metric multipliers
- Significant figures
- Orders of magnitude
- Estimation

### 1.2 – Uncertainties and errors

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Random and systematic errors
- Absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties
- Error bars
- Uncertainty of gradient and intercepts

### 1.3 – Vectors and scalars

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Vector and scalar quantities
- Combination and resolution of vectors

#### Relevant formulas:

### Helpful learning resources

If you found this video helpful, make sure to check out the rest of Khan Academy's physics playlist here.

### Topic 2: Mechanics

### 2.1 – Motion

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Distance and displacement
- Speed and velocity
- Acceleration
- Graphs describing motion
- Equations of motion for uniform acceleration
- Projectile motion
- Fluid resistance and terminal speed

#### Relevant formulas:

### 2.2 – Forces

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Objects as point particles
- Free-body diagrams
- Translational equilibrium
- Newton’s laws of motion
- Solid friction

#### Relevant formulas:

### 2.3 – Work, energy and power

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Kinetic energy
- Gravitational potential energy
- Elastic potential energy
- Work done as energy transfer
- Power as rate of energy transfer
- Principle of conservation of energy
- Efficiency

#### Relevant formulas:

### 2.4 – Momentum and impulse

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Newton’s second law expressed in terms of rate of change of momentum
- Impulse and force–time graphs
- Conservation of linear momentum
- Elastic collisions, inelastic collisions and explosions

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of momentum:
- Kinetic energy from momentum:

### Helpful learning resources

If you found these videos helpful, make sure to check out the rest of Khan Academy's physics playlist here.

### Topic 3: Thermal physics

### 3.1 – Thermal concepts

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Molecular theory of solids, liquids and gases
- Temperature and absolute temperature
- Internal energy
- Specific heat capacity
- Phase change
- Specific latent heat

#### Relevant formulas:

- Heat transferred when two objects at different temperatures interact:
- Energy released from latent heat:

### 3.2 – Modelling a gas

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Pressure
- Equation of state for an ideal gas
- Kinetic model of an ideal gas
- Mole, molar mass and the Avogadro constant
- Differences between real and ideal gases

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of pressure:
- Number of moles in a gas:
- The ideal gas equation:
- Kinetic energy of ideal gas molecules:

### Helpful learning resources

If you found these videos helpful, make sure to check out the rest of Mitch Campbell's Thermal Physics playlist here.

### Topic 4: Waves

### 4.1 – Oscillations

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Simple harmonic oscillations
- Time period, frequency, amplitude, displacement and phase difference
- Conditions for simple harmonic motion

#### Relevant formulas:

- Relationship between period and frequency:

### 4.2 – Travelling waves

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Travelling waves
- Wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed
- Transverse and longitudinal waves
- The nature of electromagnetic waves
- The nature of sound waves

#### Relevant formulas:

- (You should be able to derive this formula on your own)

### 4.3 – Wave characteristics

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Wavefronts and rays
- Amplitude and intensity
- Superposition
- Polarization

#### Relevant formulas:

### 4.4 – Wave behaviour

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Reflection and refraction
- Snell’s law, critical angle and total internal reflection
- Diffraction through a single-slit and around objects
- Interference patterns
- Double-slit interference
- Path difference

#### Relevant formulas:

- Snell's law:
- Interference at a double slit:
- Constructive interference: path difference =
- Destructive interference: path difference =

### 4.5 – Standing waves

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The nature of standing waves
- Boundary conditions
- Nodes and antinodes

### Helpful learning resources

If you found these videos helpful, make sure to check out the rest of Mitch Campbell's Waves playlist here.

### Topic 5: Electricity and magnetism

### 5.1 – Electric fields

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Charge
- Electric fields
- Coulomb’s law
- Electric current
- Direct current (dc)
- Potential difference

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of current:
- Coulomb's law:
- Definition of electric potential:
- Definition of electric field:
- Flow rate of a current:

### 5.2 – Heating effect of electric currents

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Circuit diagrams
- Kirchhoff’s circuit laws
- Heating effect of current and its consequences
- Resistance expressed as
- Ohm’s law
- Resistivity
- Power dissipation

#### Relevant formulas:

- Kirchoff’s circuit laws:
- Definition of resistance:
- Resistors in series:
- Resistors in parallel:
- Definition of resistivity:

### 5.3 – Electric cells

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Cells
- Internal resistance
- Secondary cells
- Terminal potential difference
- Electromotive force (emf)

#### Relevant formulas:

### 5.4 – Magnetic effects of electric currents

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Magnetic fields
- Magnetic force

#### Relevant formulas:

- Force caused by a magnetic field:

### Topic 6: Circular motion and gravitation

### 6.1 – Circular motion

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Period, frequency, angular displacement and angular velocity
- Centripetal force
- Centripetal acceleration

#### Relevant formulas:

- Relationship between speed and angular speed:
- Centripetal acceleration:
- Centripetal force:

### 6.2 – Newton’s law of gravitation

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Newton’s law of gravitation
- Gravitational field strength

#### Relevant formulas:

- Newton's law of gravitation:
- Definition of gravitational field strength:
- Field strength for a point mass:

### Topic 7: Atomic, nuclear and particle physics

### 7.1 – Discrete energy and radioactivity

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Discrete energy and discrete energy levels
- Transitions between energy levels
- Radioactive decay
- Fundamental forces and their properties
- Alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays
- Half-life
- Absorption characteristics of decay particles
- Isotopes
- Background radiation

#### Relevant formulas:

- Energy of a photon:

### 7.2 – Nuclear reactions

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The unified atomic mass unit
- Mass defect and nuclear binding energy
- Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion

#### Relevant formulas:

- Energy-mass relationship:

### 7.3 – The structure of matter

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Quarks, leptons and their antiparticles
- Hadrons, baryons and mesons
- The conservation laws of charge, baryon number, lepton number and strangeness
- The nature and range of the strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force
- Exchange particles
- Feynman diagrams
- Confinement
- The Higgs boson

### Topic 8: Energy production

### 8.1 – Energy sources

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Specific energy and energy density of fuel sources
- Sankey diagrams
- Primary energy sources
- Electricity as a secondary and versatile form of energy
- Renewable and non-renewable energy sources

#### Relevant formulas:

- Wind power equation:

### 8.2 – Thermal energy transfer

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Conduction, convection and thermal radiation
- Black-body radiation
- Albedo and emissivity
- The solar constant
- The greenhouse effect
- Energy balance in the Earth surface–atmosphere system

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of intensity:

### Topic 9: Wave phenomena (HL only)

### 9.1 – Simple harmonic motion

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The defining equation of SHM
- Energy changes

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of angular velocity:
- The defining equation for SHM:
- Displacement-time equations for SHM:
- Velocity-time equations for SHM:
- Velocity-displacement equation for SHM:
- Kinetic energy of SHM system:
- Total energy of SHM system:

### 9.2 – Single-slit diffraction

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The nature of single-slit diffraction

#### Relevant formulas:

- Angle between 1st minimum and central maximum for single-slit diffraction:

### 9.3 – Interference

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Young’s double-slit experiment
- Modulation of two-slit interference pattern by one-slit diffraction effect
- Multiple slit and diffraction grating interference patterns
- Thin film interference

#### Relevant formulas:

- Diffraction grating equation:
- Reflection of light through thin film:
- Constructive interference:
- Destructive interference:

### 9.4 – Resolution

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The size of a diffracting aperture
- The resolution of simple monochromatic two-source systems

#### Relevant formulas:

- Rayleigh's criterion for resolution:
- Resolvance of diffraction grating:

### 9.5 – Doppler effect

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The Doppler effect for sound waves and light waves

#### Relevant formulas:

- For moving source:
- For moving observer:
- For light waves:

### Topic 10: Fields (HL only)

### 10.1 – Describing fields

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Gravitational fields
- Electrostatic fields
- Electric potential and gravitational potential
- Field lines
- Equipotential surfaces

#### Relevant formulas:

- Relationship between work and potential:
- For an electric field:
- For a gravitational field:

### 10.2 – Fields at work

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Potential and potential energy
- Potential gradient
- Potential difference
- Escape speed
- Orbital motion, orbital speed and orbital energy
- Forces and inverse-square law behaviour

#### Relevant formulas:

Electric fields: | Gravitational fields: |

- Escape speed:
- Orbital speed:

### Topic 11: Electromagnetic induction (HL only)

### 11.1 – Electromagnetic induction

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Electromotive force (emf)
- Magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage
- Faraday’s law of induction
- Lenz’s law

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of magnetic flux:
- Faraday's law:
- EMF induced in a moving rod:
- EMF induced in coil of N turns:

### 11.2 – Power generation and transmission

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Alternating current (ac) generators
- Average power and root mean square (rms) values of current and voltage
- Transformers
- Diode bridges
- Half-wave and full-wave rectification

#### Relevant formulas:

- Root mean square of alternating current:
- Root mean square of alternating voltage:
- Maximum power:
- Average power:
- Transformer equation:

### 11.3 – Capacitance

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Capacitance
- Dielectric materials
- Capacitors in series and parallel
- Resistor-capacitor (RC) series circuits
- Time constant

#### Relevant formulas:

- Definition of capacitance:
- Combining capacitors in parallel and in series:
- Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor:
- Energy stored in a capacitor:
- Time constant:
- Discharging a capacitor:

### Topic 12: Quantum and nuclear physics (HL only)

### 12.1 – The interaction of matter with radiation

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Photons
- The photoelectric effect
- Matter waves
- Pair production and pair annihilation
- Quantization of angular momentum in the Bohr model for hydrogen
- The wave function
- The uncertainty principle for energy and time and position and momentum
- Tunnelling, potential barrier and factors affecting tunnelling probability

#### Relevant formulas:

- Energy of a photon:
- Maximum kinetic energy of a photoelectron:
- Energy of electron at each orbital level:
- Angular momentum of electron at each orbital level:
- Probability of finding an electron within a given volume:
- Heisenberg's uncertainty principle:
- Position-momentum:
- Energy-time:

### 12.2 – Nuclear physics

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Rutherford scattering and nuclear radius
- Nuclear energy levels
- The neutrino
- The law of radioactive decay and the decay constant

#### Relevant formulas:

- Relationship between radius of nucleus and nucleon number:
- Decay equations:
- Number of nuclei at time t:
- Activity at time t:

- Angle of electron diffraction first minimum:

### Option A: Relativity

### A.1 – The beginnings of relativity

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Reference frames
- Galilean relativity and Newton’s postulates concerning time and space
- Maxwell and the constancy of the speed of light
- Forces on a charge or current

#### Relevant formulas:

### A.2 – Lorentz transformations

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The two postulates of special relativity
- Clock synchronization
- The Lorentz transformations
- Velocity addition
- Invariant quantities (spacetime interval, proper time, proper length and rest mass)
- Time dilation
- Length contraction
- The muon decay experiment

#### Relevant formulas:

- '

### A.3 – Spacetime diagrams

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Spacetime diagrams
- Worldlines
- The twin paradox

#### Relevant formulas:

### A.4 – Relativistic mechanics (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Total energy and rest energy
- Relativistic momentum
- Particle acceleration
- Electric charge as an invariant quantity
- Photons
- MeV
*c*^{–2}as the unit of mass and MeV*c*^{–1}as the unit of momentum

#### Relevant formulas:

### A.5 – General relativity (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The equivalence principle
- The bending of light
- Gravitational redshift and the Pound–Rebka–Snider experiment
- Schwarzschild black holes
- Event horizons
- Time dilation near a black hole
- Applications of general relativity to the universe as a whole

#### Relevant formulas:

### Option B: Engineering physics

### B.1 – Rigid bodies and rotational dynamics

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Torque
- Moment of inertia
- Rotational and translational equilibrium
- Angular acceleration
- Equations of rotational motion for uniform angular acceleration
- Newton’s second law applied to angular motion
- Conservation of angular momentum

#### Relevant formulas:

### B.2 – Thermodynamics

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The first law of thermodynamics
- The second law of thermodynamics
- Entropy
- Cyclic processes and pV diagrams
- Isovolumetric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic processes
- Carnot cycle
- Thermal efficiency

#### Relevant formulas:

- = constant (for monatomic gases)

### B.3 – Fluids and fluid dynamics (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Density and pressure
- Buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle
- Pascal’s principle
- Hydrostatic equilibrium
- The ideal fluid
- Streamlines
- The continuity equation
- The Bernoulli equation and the Bernoulli effect
- Stokes’ law and viscosity
- Laminar and turbulent flow and the Reynolds number

#### Relevant formulas:

### B.4 – Forced vibrations and resonance (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Natural frequency of vibration
- Q-factor and damping
- Periodic stimulus and the driving frequency
- Resonance

#### Relevant formulas:

### Option C: Imaging

### C.1 – Introduction to imaging

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Thin lenses
- Converging and diverging lenses
- Converging and diverging mirrors
- Ray diagrams
- Real and virtual images
- Linear and angular magnification
- Spherical and chromatic aberrations

#### Relevant formulas:

### C.2 – Imaging instrumentation

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Optical compound microscopes
- Simple optical astronomical refracting telescopes
- Simple optical astronomical reflecting telescopes
- Single-dish radio telescopes
- Radio interferometry telescopes
- Satellite-borne telescopes

#### Relevant formulas:

### C.3 – Fibre optics

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Structure of optic fibres
- Step-index fibres and graded-index fibres
- Total internal reflection and critical angle
- Waveguide and material dispersion in optic fibres
- Attenuation and the decibel (dB) scale

#### Relevant formulas:

### C.4 – Medical imaging (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Detection and recording of X-ray images in medical contexts
- Generation and detection of ultrasound in medical contexts
- Medical imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging) involving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

#### Relevant formulas:

### Option D: Astrophysics

### D.1 – Stellar quantities

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Objects in the universe
- The nature of stars
- Astronomical distances
- Stellar parallax and its limitations
- Luminosity and apparent brightness

#### Relevant formulas:

### D.2 – Stellar characteristics and stellar evolution

#### Key concepts to learn:

- Stellar spectra
- Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) diagram
- Mass–luminosity relation for main sequence stars
- Cepheid variables
- Stellar evolution on HR diagrams
- Red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes
- Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer–Volkoff limits

#### Relevant formulas:

### D.3 – Cosmology

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The Big Bang model
- Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation
- Hubble’s law
- The accelerating universe and redshift (z)
- The cosmic scale factor (R)

#### Relevant formulas:

### D.4 – Stellar processes (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The Jeans criterion
- Nuclear fusion
- Nucleosynthesis off the main sequence
- Type Ia and II supernovae

### D.5 – Further cosmology (HL only)

#### Key concepts to learn:

- The cosmological principle
- Rotation curves and the mass of galaxies
- Dark matter
- Fluctuations in the CMB
- The cosmological origin of redshift
- Critical density
- Dark energy